The U.S. Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) continues to consider and approve state and tribal hemp production plans, announcing the approval of plans for the U.S. Virgin Islands, Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, Chippewa Cree Tribe, Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Superior Chippewa Indians, and Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians on May 27th. To date, USDA has approved 47 hemp production plans: 18 for state/territory plans and 29 tribal plans. USDA, USDA Approves Hemp Production Plans for U.S. Virgin Islands, Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, Chippewa Cree Tribe, Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Superior Chippewa Indians and Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians (May 27, 2020).
The Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018, popularly known as the Farm Bill, established general requirements for the oversight of hemp producers. The USDA exercises primary regulatory authority over hemp producers in the United States under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (“AMA”), as amended by the Farm Bill. USDA regulates hemp production under a federal regulatory framework in states and within tribal boundaries that do not have a USDA-approved plan.
The AMA also authorizes the states and Indian tribes desiring to exercise regulatory authority over hemp production within their boundaries to submit plans for approval by USDA. The AMA gives USDA sixty days to review state and tribal plans. USDA issued its interim final rule in October 2019 establishing a domestic hemp production program, including implementing the requirements for state and tribal plans set forth in the Farm Bill. State and tribal regulatory plans must include:
- Maintaining relevant information about the land on which hemp is produced, including a legal description of the land, for at least three years;
- A procedure for testing hemp THC concentration levels;
- A procedure for disposal of plants that exceed hemp THC levels, and products from those plants;
- A procedure to comply with the enforcement provisions specified in the AMA;
- A procedure for conducting random, annual inspections of hemp producers;
- A procedure for submitting information to USDA; and
- Certification that the state or tribe has adequate resources and personnel to implement required hemp production procedures.
In addition, USDA is reviewing one state and four tribal plans, and has reviewed and returned three state plans as well as a tribal plan for editing or amendment. USDA, Status of State and Tribal Hemp Production Plans for USDA Approval (updated Apr. 29, 2020). Four states and three tribes have expressed interest or intent to submit a plan, one state will apply USDA’s plan, and eighteen states continue to operate under the 2014 agricultural pilot program. In sum, there are or will be over 80 hemp production regimens in play around the country.